How Do Plasma Cutters Actually Work?
The unique properties of plasma that is present in the plasma cutter is the one responsible for making such object pass through ferrous materials such as metals and steels.
Let us first define plasma before we continue discussing about plasma cutters and how it works. Speaking of plasma, it is known to be as the fourth state of matter apart from solid, liquid and gas and is also known as a hot ionized gas which consists of approximately the same equal numbers of positively charged ions and the negatively charged electrons. Before, many schools teach about the state of matter having only three which are the solid, liquid and gas but the truth is that, there really is four of them and the fourth one being the plasma. To simply put, a plasma is an ionized gas that provides sufficient amount of energy to free electrons coming from the atoms or the molecules plus, it is also the one responsible for letting both the ions and electrons to coexist. You can actually get a plasma by boosting a gas to an extremely high temperature. By doing so, the energy will start to break apart the gas molecules and the atoms will begin to split as wel;. With this, the fast moving electrons will also collide with the other electrons and ions which will lead to the release of an enormous amount of energy. The enormous amount of energy being released by the collision is the reason why plasma has an unbelievable cutting power.
The plasma cutter actually works by sending a pressurized gas through the small channel in the cutting nozzle. If you are to look closely at its center, there you can find an electrode that is negatively charged. When you put power to a negatively charged electrode and touch the tip of the nozzle with a positively charged metal, it will produce a connection and coming from that connection is the creation of a circuit and a powerful spark. Plasma will be produced once the has that has been passing through the channel will be heated by the spark until it reach its fourth state form, so to speak. Once the temperature of plasma reached an amazing level of thirty thousand degree Fahrenheit, it became capable of cutting through almost anything, even metals and steels.
There is also another of making plasma cutter works and that is by creating a high velocity of plasma flow between the electrode that is negatively charged and the electrode that is positively charged.